Accessory Navicular Syndrome (os tibiale externum)

What is an accessory navicular?  An accessory navicular is an extra bone that someone is born with a birth and is attached to the navicular. The Classification for accessory naviculars is by Geist: Type 1 is a bone embedded in the posterior tibial tendon, type 2 is attached to the navicular by a fibrocartilaginous connection, and a type 3 is …

Os Trigonum Syndrome

What is the Os Trigonum? The Os Trigonum in an extra bone that can develop behind the ankle joint behind the talus. This accessory bone is connected to the talus by a fibrous band and is present at birth. It can be present in either one or both ankles.  What is Os Trigonum Syndrome? Most people with an os trigonum …

Achilles Rupture: Operative vs. Nonoperative Treatment

What is an achilles rupture? The achilles tendon is formed by the gastrocnemius and soleus tendon and inserts into the back of the heel (calcaneus bone). The achilles tendon is the major tendon involved in bending the ankle down (plantar flexion) and allowing the foot to push off the ground.  Why is it important to treat an achilles rupture? If …

Compression Socks or Stockings

What are compression socks? Compression socks are stretchable socks/stockings that apply gentle higher pressure from the foot to a lower pressure at the calf to promote blood flow and decrease swelling. Compression socks come in various pressure measured in units of mm Hg from light 8-15 mm Hg, mild 15-20 mm Hg, moderate 20-30 mm Hg, and firm 30-40 mm …

Chilblains of the toes (pernio)

What is chilblains of the toes? Chilblains is a painful inflammation of the small blood vessels of the skin caused by cold temperatures and damp environment.  What does chilblains of the toe look like? The toes can become red, swollen, itchy and painful. Red to purple soft tissue discoloration of the toes can appear and possibly become blisters. The symptoms …

Plantar Fibroma (Ledderhose disease)

What is a plantar fibroma? It is a hard mass that grows in the plantar fascia and can range from 1 to multiple nodules. Plantar fibromas are benign, slow growing, and are symptomatic when they are large enough to cause pain from pressure of walking and standing.  What are the causes of plantar fibromas? The exact cause of developing plantar …

Stress fracture of Metatarsal

What are the metatarsals? There are 5 long, skinny bones in the foot called the metatarsals that connect the tarsal bones to the toes.  What is a stress fracture? A stress fracture is a small crack in the bone caused by overuse and repetitive activity. This occurs most commonly in runners and athletes.   What are the risk factors factors? …

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)

What is the posterior tibial muscle? The posterior tibial muscle is the primary dynamic supporter of the foot arch. The muscle is responsible for inverting the rearfoot, adducting/supinating the forefoot, and plantarflexing the ankle. It’s major antagonist is the peroneus previous and activation of the PTT locks the transverse tarsal joint causing the foot to be a rigid lever arm …

Urea cream

What is Urea cream? Urea is a natural substance made in the body to help with the metabolism and excretion of nitrogen. Scientist have learned to synthesize it and it is used for many different purposes. Urea cream typically ranges from 2% to 40% in potency and is used to help soften thick layers of skin and nails, also it …

Toenail Fungus – Onychomycosis or tinea unguium

What is toenail fungus? People can develop an infection of their toenails by from different types of fungus, mold, or yeast ( dermatophytes – trichophyton, candida) . The fungus can infect multiple parts of the nail unit including the nail bed and/or plate What are the types of toenail fungus? There are 4 main types of toenail fungus: distal subungual, …