Toe Fracture

What bones make up the toes of the foot? The foot has 14 toe bones: 3 bones in toes 2-5 the distal, middle, and proximal phalanx. The big toe has 2 bones: the distal and proximal phalanx. What are the causes of toe fractures? The cause of toe fractures are trauma, whether by direct blow or impact. Most commonly people …

Turf Toe

What is Turf Toe? Turf toe is a hyperextension injury to the big toe joint (1st metatarsal phalangeal joint) with damage to the plantar plate and sesamoid complex. There is a sprain/tear to the ligaments of the joint with possible damage to the sesamoid bones. The tear of the ligaments typically occur off the proximal phalanx.  What are the grades …

Athlete’s Foot (tinea pedis)

What is Athlete’s foot? Athlete’s foot is a fungal infection of the foot. Fungal infections of the foot are common because of the dark, moist, and warm environment inside shoes. Fungus thrives in areas such as public pools, gyms, public showers, and locker room which is why a fungal infection of the foot is called athlete’s foot.  How to diagnose …

Lisfranc Injury of the Foot

What is a Lisfranc injury? A lisfranc injury is a disruption between the tarsometarsal joint complex specifically damage to the lisfranc ligament that connects the medial cuneiform to the 2nd metatarsal. How to diagnose a Lisfranc injury? X-rays are typically used to diagnose lisfranc injuries and specifically attention is paid to a widening of the gap between the medical cuneiform …

Bunionette – “Tailor’s Bunion” of the foot

What is a Tailor’s Bunion? A tailor’s bunion is a painful bony prominence on lateral aspect of the 5th met head. The pain from a Tailor’s bunion is caused by the large bony prominence that is rubbing against shoe wear and/or a painful bursa formation. How to diagnose a Tailor’s Bunion? A tailor’s bunion can be seen clinically and X-rays …

Flat Feet (pes planus) or Fallen Arches

What is a flat foot? A flat foot is a decrease in the medial arch of your foot, which can be congenital or acquired. An acquired flat foot is called posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, which occurs over time as the posterior tibial tendon undergoes damage and decreases in function. How to diagnose a flatfoot? A flat foot can be diagnosed …

Ganglion Cyst of the Foot

What is a ganglion cyst? A ganglion cyst is a sac filled with clear thick fluid that originates from the tendon sheath or joint capsule. Fun fact they are also known as a “Bible bump” because people used flat books to flatten and explode the cysts. The most commonly used book was the bible.  What are the causes the causes …

Ingrown Toenail

What is an ingrown nail? An ingrown nail is when the nail grows into the skin causing irritation, which can lead to pain, swelling, redness, and infection. The toe can become infected if the nail causes a break in the skin and allows bacteria to enter.   What are the causes of an ingrown toenail ? An ingrown toenail can …

Ankle Arthroscopy

What is ankle arthroscopy? Ankle arthroscopy is a surgical procedure that uses a fiber optic camera and other tools (shaver, radiofrequency abalator) to treat/diagnose pathology in the ankle joint. This procedures consists of 2 small incision on the medial side of the tibialis anterior tendon and lateral to the peroneus tertius tendon. Ankle arthroscopy can be done anteriorly and posteriorly …

Achilles Tendonitis

What is Achilles tendonitis? Achilles tendonitis is a chronic inflammation of achilles tendon that causes thickening and pain of the tendon. The thickening occurs anywhere along the tendon, but most commonly at the insertion. At the insertion of achilles there can also be abnormal bony enlargement from the calcaneus. This bone can also cause irritation forming a painful retrocalcaneal bursa. …