Webbed Toes or syndactyly

What is webbed toes? Webbed toes is a condition that people are born with when two or more toes are partially or fully connected by a flexible skin bridge or bony fusion. Webbed toes are seen in 1 in 2000 births and most commonly occur between the 2nd and 3rd toe. Tibial syndactyly is between the 1st and 2nd toe, Central …

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)

What is the posterior tibial muscle? The posterior tibial muscle is the primary dynamic supporter of the foot arch. The muscle is responsible for inverting the rearfoot, adducting/supinating the forefoot, and plantarflexing the ankle. It’s major antagonist is the peroneus previous and activation of the PTT locks the transverse tarsal joint causing the foot to be a rigid lever arm …

Hand-Foot Syndrome or Palmar-Plantar Erythodysesthesia

What is Hand-Foot Syndrome? Hand-Foot Syndrome is a side effect of some cancer treatments.  What are the symptoms of Hand-Foot Syndrome? Redness, swelling, tingling, burning, tenderness, callus formation, blistering, skin cracking, sores, severe pain.  What is the cause of Hand-Foot Syndrome? Some cancer drugs that leg out of the blood vessels during treatment can cause the growth of skin or …

Toenail Fungus – Onychomycosis or tinea unguium

What is toenail fungus? People can develop an infection of their toenails by from different types of fungus, mold, or yeast ( dermatophytes – trichophyton, candida) . The fungus can infect multiple parts of the nail unit including the nail bed and/or plate What are the types of toenail fungus? There are 4 main types of toenail fungus: distal subungual, …

Toe Fracture

What bones make up the toes of the foot? The foot has 14 toe bones: 3 bones in toes 2-5 the distal, middle, and proximal phalanx. The big toe has 2 bones: the distal and proximal phalanx. What are the causes of toe fractures? The cause of toe fractures are trauma, whether by direct blow or impact. Most commonly people …

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome of the Foot

What is the tarsal tunnel? The tarsal tunnel is a narrow space on the inside of the ankle that contains the Tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, Tibial artery,Tibial Vein Tibial nerve, flexor hallucinating longus. These structures are covered by the flexor retinaculum (laciniate ligament) that extends from the medial malleolus to the calcaneus.  What is tarsal tunnel syndrome? Tarsal tunnel syndrome is the compression of …

Jones Fracture of the foot

What is a Jones Fracture? A Jones Fracture is located at the 5th metatarsal, specifically at the metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction. The fracture occurs in an area called vascular watershed meaning low blood supply. How to diagnosis a Jones Fracture? The area around the base of the 5th metatarsal will usually have swelling, bruising, and be tender to the touch. Xrays are …

Athlete’s Foot (tinea pedis)

What is Athlete’s foot? Athlete’s foot is a fungal infection of the foot. Fungal infections of the foot are common because of the dark, moist, and warm environment inside shoes. Fungus thrives in areas such as public pools, gyms, public showers, and locker room which is why a fungal infection of the foot is called athlete’s foot.  How to diagnose …

Lisfranc Injury of the Foot

What is a Lisfranc injury? A lisfranc injury is a disruption between the tarsometarsal joint complex specifically damage to the lisfranc ligament that connects the medial cuneiform to the 2nd metatarsal. How to diagnose a Lisfranc injury? X-rays are typically used to diagnose lisfranc injuries and specifically attention is paid to a widening of the gap between the medical cuneiform …